Psychological Concepts

Psychological Concepts

BEHAVIORISM

The concept of psychology defends the use of strictly experimental procedures to study observable behavior (conduct), considering the environment as a set of stimulus-response. The behaviorist approach in psychology has its roots in the associationism of the English philosophers, as well as in the American school of psychology known as functionalism and in the Darwinian theory of evolution since both currents emphasized a conception of the individual as an organism. that adapts to the environment (or environment).

Human behavior

The actions

Verbalizations

Both learned and not learned from people through the observation method

  • Reactions against structuralism

Substitution of subjective data to objectives

Introspection by the universal method of Science

Mind and consciousness (no utility)

  • The method used to study behavior. Characteristics methodical rules

Empirical verification

self-corrective

Progressive

General type formulations

Substitution of subjective data to objectives

It is factual (it goes to the facts)

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E R E R

        • unconditioned reflexes

Innate response to an unconditioned stimulus (needs)

        • conditioned reflexes

The non-innate response elicited by the conditioned stimulus (after repeatedly presented in association with an unconditioned stimulus)

        • stimuli
        • (anything external to the organism that produces a response)
        • Answers

Any behavior elicited by a stimulus

    • Watson
      • Methodological Behaviorism.

Rejection of consciousness as an object of study

          • radical behaviorism

Denies the existence of consciousness

          • Nature of the relationship ER

When a stimulus is provoked by the environment, a conditioned response will always be obtained.

          • Conceptualization of Learning

It will be learned due to the conditioning of brain events and not sensory experiences (the environment is a very important element for learning).

          • Determinants of behavior

Atmosphere

Thought

Language

Physiological and organic functions

      • skinner
        • Characterization of the ER scheme

E R Sr +/-

 

 

            • reinforcement theory

There are positive and negative reinforcers. The former increase the probability of a response and the latter decreases the probability of emission.

            • responsive behavior

It is emitted upon receiving a conditioned stimulus.

            • Operant behavior

Operates on the subject by issuing a response

Operant conditioning is based on the principle of positive and negative reinforcement (reward and punishment).

            • The methodology used: Skinner box

Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning

Operant conditioning was introduced by the American psychologist Burrhus Frederic Skinner as an alternative to classical conditioning applied by the Russian psychologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Through experimentation, Skinner concluded that behavior could be conditioned through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. As seen in the image, positive reinforcements condition the mouse to find the end of the maze. The mouse is rewarded with food when it reaches the first stage (A). Once this type of behavior has become ingrained, the mouse receives no further rewards until it reaches the second stage (B). After several tries, the mouse must find the end of the maze to receive its reward (C).

            • Behavioral concepts of learning:
              • Extinction:

When the conditioned response is gradually diminished by repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without reinforcement (withholding the reinforcer)

              • Generalization

It is a reaction to similarities as opposed to discrimination

              • Discrimination

It is the complementary process to generalization and in this process, the organism responds to different situations through reinforcement and selective extinction.

6.1. Learning Theories

          • Contiguity Behavior determines the action
          • Reinforcement: It is given by a stimulus

mr positive and negative

Positive punishment (giving an unpleasant stimulus)

Negative punishment (take away something positive)

6.2. reinforcement schedules

        • Applications of behavioral principles in everyday events

In our life and society, behaviorism is widely used, mainly in schools. For example, while in preschool, the teacher rewards the effort of her students with a star on their forehead. This gives the child a reinforcer to continue with his effort, in the family when the child behaves well he is given a prize (sweet, toy), etc.

        • Criticisms made to behaviorism

He is not interested in the person, (there are no feelings or emotions in the individual, only behaviors)

Only the observable is real, it does not care about internal processes

Not all behavior is a physiological response

 

HUMANISM

        • Conceptualizes Humanism in a general way

Study human capacities and needs

        • Indicates and explains the main postulates that characterize this school of Psychology
          • Man as such, exceeds the sum of his parts (we are a whole but we do not know each other well)
          • The man carries out his existence in the human context (learns to live)
          • man is aware
          • Man can choose
          • The man is intentional (looks for something, has goals)
          • Prepare a comparative table of the representative authors of Psychoanalysis, identify them, and place them in the following categories:
          • Antecedents: (From behaviorism and Psychoanalysis, select those that most contributed to the emergence of Humanism)
                • Erich Fromm
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Manage 5 needs

              • Transcendence
              • belonging
              • Identity
              • Relationship and orientation framework
              • Reasonable World
                • Jung

Principle of entropy (equivalence and polarity

Functions (feeling, logic, intuition, comprehension

                • Freud

Stages (oral, Anal, Genital, Phatic)

psychosocial theory

                • horny

Society and culture determine the individual

self-actualization

Ideal self and the real self (spontaneity

The guy has mints

          • Founders:
            • Maslow

Motivation plays a very important role, it is the “psychic force that moves us to do something”, this driving force (motivation) leads us to a life plan

 

Life Plan

Goals

Purposes

wishes to be

aspirations

concerns

Interests

Needs

MASLOW’S PYRAMID

 

SELF REALISATION

AESTHETICS

COGNITIVE ESTEEM

OF SECURITY POSSESSION AND LOVE

BASIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL

Maslow says that if the human being does not satisfy these needs, he cannot continue

                • Allport

Complexity and individuality guide BEHAVIOR

Principle of motivation (a mixture of factors that create the motivated man) Motivation has the most crucial role in the Life Plan

 

He distinguished between ideographic and nomothetic psychology.

                  • Ideographic: intensive and individual knowledge (knowing myself to realize what I am capable of achieving) unique individual
                  • Nomothetic: Look for general laws that can apply to many different people No matter what happened (variable-focused)

His theory on the “functional autonomy” of motivation has been widely accepted and has contributed to displacing the old view that adult motivations are nothing more than the development of childhood or hereditary impulses.

            • Developers:
              • Carl Rogers

It states that to have a functional and optimal personality there are 11 builders

            • Updating Trend
            • Experience
            • Aware
            • I
            • Incongruity
            • reaction between threat
            • Congruence
            • Unconditional positive regard
            • Unconditional evaluation
            • Assessment
            • knowledge

The first to worry about giving the patient (client) confidence and forming a good treatment and interpersonal relationship

The personality of man is given by the environment

            • Mention the main contributions of Humanism in the development of Psychology
              • Studying human being from intentionality and there arises the interpersonal relationship
              • Take into account the needs and capabilities of the human being
              • Take the customer as a person
            • Mention the criticisms that Humanism received
              • You cannot establish such a close relationship because the client could have emotional confusion

 

PSYCHOANALYSIS

            • Conceptualizes Psychoanalysis in a general way

The name was given to a specific method for investigating unconscious mental processes and to an approach to psychotherapy. The term also refers to the systematic structuring of psychoanalytic theory, based on the relationship between conscious and unconscious mental processes.

            • Indicates and explains the main postulates that characterize this school of psychology.
              • The patient can only be cured by recovering and working through what is repressed.
              • Childhood experiences are part of neurosis
              • A repressed impulse manifests itself in a symbolic form
              • Prepare a comparative table of the representative authors of Psychoanalysis, identify them, and place them in the following categories:
              • Background
                • G.W. Leibniz degrees of consciousness

It is not always necessary to exhume neurotic history or symptoms

                    • JW Goethe

Neurosis

                    • G.T. Fechner

psychic structure

Mechanistic – romantic retakes of Freud’s duality (mind-body)

                    • Ch. Darwin

Theory of the evolution of species

                • pioneers
                  • Herbart

Something unconscious can be made conscious (dreams can be brought to reality)

As coordinated elements. He rejected all approaches based on the separation of the mental faculties and maintained that all mental phenomena result from the interaction of elementary ideas. He believed that pedagogical methods and systems should be based on psychology and ethics: on psychology to provide the necessary knowledge of the mind, and on ethics to serve as the basis for determining the social ends of education.

                  • Schopenhauer

the consciousness of the self

For Schopenhauer, the tragedy of life arises from the nature of the will, which incessantly urges the individual toward successive goals, none of which can provide permanent satisfaction to the infinite activity of the life force or will. Thus, the will leads the person to pain, a remedy for suffering and death; to an endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, and the activity of the will can only be brought to an end through an attitude of renunciation, in which reason governs the will to the point that it ceases to strive.

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.

                  • Charcot

French neurologist is considered the father of clinical neurology. Born in Paris, he studied at the University of this city. In 1856 he was appointed doctor of the Central Hospital Bureau. In 1860 he was appointed professor of pathological anatomy at the University of Paris. Two years later he joined the team at the Hospital de la Salpêtrière and opened the most prestigious clinic of its time. He specialized in the study of hysteria, locomotor ataxia, hypnosis, and aphasia. Cerebrospinal sclerosis is named Charcot’s disease in his honor. After achieving international fame, he became an honorary member of the American Neurological Association in 1881. He managed to attract disciples and scientists from all over the world, the most famous being Sigmund Freud.

                • Founder
                  • Freud

Unconscious forces that motivate human behavior

psychosexual theory

psychic structure

pleasure principle

Principle of reality (it is acquired through time and experience)

Principle of polarity or duality (Dichotomies

Principle of behavior, once someone gets used to doing something, tends to repeat it (habit)

                  • The id: (child) immaturity, guided by pleasure, selfish, rebellious
                  • The ego (the mediator) mediates and makes decisions between the pleasure-seeking id and the (moral) superego.
                  • The super self (adult) morality rules set by society

stages

                  • Oral (the main source of pleasure is given in the mouth, lips, and tongue)
                  • Anal (gratification of the boa to the anus and rectum for the attitudes of the mother)
                  • phallic (penis)
                  • Genital

defense mechanisms of the self

                  • Repression
                  • Regression
                  • reaction formation
                  • Projection
                  • Fixation
                  • Sublimation
                  • Substitution
                  • ID
                  • Displacement
                • Developers
                  • Adler

He considers that the child has incestuous desires that he must repress

The environment dictates the individual

Gives psychological and biological differences

sexual act

Gives the principles of brief therapy

Presents the problems (individual and social)

Complexes (inferiority, superiority)

                  • Jung

Define Archetype (what is found in the apparatus within the psychic apparatus)

It deals with the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious, proposing the distinction of extrovert-introvert personality types, later so popular.

He made a distinction between the individual unconscious and the ‘collective unconscious’, which, according to him, contained feelings, thoughts, and memories that conditioned each subject (from birth, and not by learned cultural influence), even in its way of symbolizing dreams. The collective unconscious would contain ‘archetypes’, primitive, primordial images, which are used in situations such as confrontation with death, or the choice of a partner, and which are manifested in cultural elements such as religion, myths, fairy tales, and other popular legends

Jung’s therapeutic approach was aimed at reconciling the different states of the personality, which he divided not only into extroversion versus introversion but also between sensation versus intuition or feeling versus thinking. Understanding how the personal unconscious is integrated with the collective, the patient would reach a state of individualization, or totality in himself.

                  • Ferenczi

he focused his attention on the traumatic and nervous reactions caused by the war. We owe him the notion of introjection, an unconscious psychological mechanism of imaginary incorporation of an object or person, a concept that is opposed to projection.

He promoted a therapy called `relaxation’, “destined to return to the patient the affection he was deprived of throughout his childhood.”

                  • O.Rank

He distanced himself from Freud by attributing the development of neuroses to the traumatic experience of birth (according to him, the most intense in a person’s life) and not to the Oedipus complex. As a result of this disagreement, Rank separated from the Freudian circle to develop his theories, which gave greater importance to the individual’s present situation than to his past, also taking into account the social environment. Since 1934 he lived in the United States, where he exerted considerable influence in the field of psychotherapy.

                  • horny

Many types of neuroses are the result of emotional conflicts that begin in childhood and problems in interpersonal relationships. Horney believed that such problems were conditioned to a great extent by the socially established patterns of behavior in the social group where the individual lives, rather than by the instinctive drives of which Freud spoke.

                  • Sullivaninterpersonal theory

The person comes to have a personality that disagrees with society

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If you do not close the cycles of your life, you will drag them along and this generates problems of various kinds.

He maintained that the development of personality and mental illnesses are determined by the interplay of personal and social forces, rather than by individual constitutional factors.

                  • E. Fromm

Specific personality types have to do with specific socioeconomic patterns. This meant breaking with biologist theories of personality to consider human beings rather as the fruits of their culture. Hence, his therapeutic perspective was also oriented in this sense, proposing that an attempt be made to harmonize the impulses of the individual and those of the society where he lives.

dichotomies

Types of love

(fraternal, maternal erotic if of God)

                • Mention the main contributions of psychoanalysis in the development of Psychology

Since there is a psychic structure to study the individual and the mind

It gives a detailed idea of ​​the development of the human being

                • Mention the criticisms that Psychoanalysis received

Not everything has its origin in sexuality

It cannot be said that all actions are part of the sign

Duration of therapies

GESTALT

                • Conceptualization of Gestalt psychology

school of psychology that was primarily devoted to the study of perception. Faced with the prevailing associationism, the Gestalt school postulated that images are perceived in their entirety, as a form or configuration (from German, Gestalt), and not as a mere sum of their constituent parts. In the perceptual configurations thus considered, the context also plays an essential role. The Gestalt school tried to formulate the laws of these perceptual processes.

                • Main managers
                  • werthelmer

He investigates the visual perception of the land in which his interpretation of the apparent movement with which the principles of Gestalt were born, applying them to thought and problem-solving. They called form or workmanship the combination of separate elements into a whole.

                  • Kohler

He carried out studies with monkeys on perception and learning, which in addition to providing valuable information on the limits of animal intelligence, served to understand human perception and thought.

He thought that physics was related to psychology.

Perceptual illusion (pink)

                  • koffca

I study the apparent visual movement together with Wertheimer

Attempt develops a general theory of human behavior marked under the concept of psychological field or environment of behavior

The psychological field for him is the individual and his environment, and their interaction within the field shapes behavior.

He formulated the Gestalt theory of emotions in which anamnestic factors of the subject are downplayed to emphasize the environment.

                • Gestalt principles
                  • Isomorphism: different elements form a whole
                  • Totalism A whole is a set of elements therefore you cannot fragment it (wall)
                  • Contemporaneity (here and now) Gestalt only cares about the present the past is irrelevant
                  • Gestalt Laws
                    • Pregnancy or in good shape: what is right for you under your perception
                    • Similarity or equality: Under the same circumstances, the most similar stimuli tend to be perceived as part of the same object (black and gray boxes).
                    • Proximity: Objects that are close to each other appear to form a group
                    • Closure: Closed regions tend to look figure-shaped.
                    • Direction: It is through perception and thus the figure is given a shape
                    • Common destination: when there is a relationship between one thing and another as well as spaces
                    • Objective disposition: It is the visual perception with which objects can be observed (I see objectively)
                    • Figure and background: The figure is what is perceived at the first visual perception and the background is what is around
                  • important elements
                    • Perception: It is that interpretation of the objects of reality
                    • Wertheimer’s “phi” phenomenon (cinematographer) is A visual alteration of what one wants to see and not what it is. Giving our own perception and visual interpretation.
                    • Learning by insight (intrusion): It is given from the inside out and will be realized through our perception and what is already acquired (path)
                    • psychophysical field
                    • psychological field
                  • Contributions and criticisms of the Gestalt

Development of principles and forms that give rise to a broader development of how we perceive

That is to say, the mind is a whole and it must be taken as such.

Take into account the figures and forms that we perceive

Gives rise to short therapies

Critics

Has difficulty defining concepts

it’s very subjective

driving force

(MOTIVATION)

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