Schools of Administrative Theory

They are the various Currents or approaches through which the administration is conceived; some are relatively broad in scope and others tend to specialize. It is obvious that in a field of study as new and dynamic as this, there were multiple currents or criteria regarding its application, which has caused that to date there was not a single administrative theory that is universal.

Scientific Administration

The creators of this school are Federick Wilow Taylor and the Gibreth and Henry L Gantt spouses, who at the beginning of this century, in the United States, determined the bases of scientific administration.

This current is called Scientific Administration because of the rationalization it makes of the two engineering methods applied to administration and because they develop experimental research oriented toward worker performance.

The relations provoked by Taylorism, when implanted in the American and European industries, were sometimes violent. The fundamental contribution of the administration and the emergence of this as the specific branch of knowledge. His line of thought can be used in conjunction with other management theories.

Charles Babbage(1792-1871). One of the initiators of industrial engineering and modern administration. He dedicated a great deal of time to the development of a calculating machine which he called the Differential Machine, which was the precursor of the current Electronic computer. He anticipated many of Taylor’s theories. He caught the drawbacks of time study.

His greatest contribution was the division by trades by using artisans specialized in complete products. He postulated the advantages of the division of labor

1.-Less learning time

2. Greater skill due to the frequent repetition of the same processes

3.-It promotes the invention of tools and machinery to carry out the processes.

Provides important contributions in the sense that it considers the social phenomenon as an important aspect of organizations

Its main representatives are Max Weber, Chester Barnard Edgar Scherin, Frank Oliver Sheldon, and Chist Argyris whose essential data is provided below

Captain Herry Metacalf (1847-1917). It established the proposal that there is a science of administration Based on principles that can be applied to a great variety of cases, it also indicated that these principles can be determined by recording observations and experiences and comparing them, finally, it described a precursor system for cost control and materials; it was simple in that it provided a continuous stream of information and distributed responsibility.

Herry Rabinson Towne (1844-1924) Towne was the mediator to achieve recognition of Taylor and his methods. He was also an innovator in his own right, especially in his attempts to improve piece-time systems. He advocated an exchange of experiences between service managers from different companies under the direction of ASME thus presenting the Data on which a management science could be based.

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Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)

He is one of the most important personalities in the world of administration; he is often called the father of scientific management. He was born in German Town, Pennsylvania, and remained middle class in 1870, entering a mechanical shop as a mechanic; He quickly turned his department into one of the most productive and for the same, he got the position of manager in the workshop. Taylor dedicated most of his efforts to studying and finding the best way to execute the work through time and motion studies and the most appropriate way to pay workers to increase productivity.

To motivate the staff, he introduced the differential work incentive system that consisted of creating two types of rates. For example, if a worker obtains a standard production, he is paid a first-rate regardless of his minimum wage, if this same worker exceeds the standard, he is paid to the workers with remuneration with the second rate.

I postulate that to apply scientific management a mental revolution was necessary both in the mind of the worker and in that of management itself, which includes the following aspects:

A) Instead of both parties fighting over the division of surplus (Company Profit) they should come together to increase this

B) To carry out each task, the scientific method must be used through experimentation.

His main contribution was to demonstrate that Scientific Management is not a group of efficiency techniques or incentives, but rather a philosophy by which management recognizes that its objective is to scientifically seek the best work methods through entertainment and time. u moves

HERRY LAWRENCE GATT (1861-1919) Originally from southern Maryland United States, he obtained an engineering degree. He met Tylor in 1887 at the Midvale Steel Co. and from that date, he became a faithful disciple and collaborator, however, Grantt paid more attention to creating an environment that allows you to obtain greater cooperation from your workers, by setting them a well-defined task. For this purpose, he established a system of remuneration for workers that he called bonuses and Gantt tasks.

Likewise, he developed training methods for workers to train them professionally, his most relevant contribution was the development of graphic techniques to plan and control which currently bear his name.

FRANK BUNKER GILBREN (1868-1924)

Also a disciple of and an effective follower of Taylor’s studies

After finishing high school; He dedicated himself to working in construction and began as a bricklayer’s apprentice. It was precisely in this activity that he implanted a method to carry out the least number of movements in the shortest possible time.

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His studies and experiments led him to identify the 17 basic elements that could be applied in any activity to reduce movement. He called these elements THERBLIGS, a name that he used by inversion of his last name. I assign a symbol and a color to each element. These items were

1.- Search: B

2.-Take C

3.- Select S

4.-Vacuum transport TV

5.- Transport w/ Tc cargo

6.-Hold So

7.- Leave DC load

8.-Put PP in position

9.- Previous CP placement

10.-Inspect I

11.- Mount M

12.-Disassemble D

13.- Use U

14.-Inevitable wait IS

15.- Avoidable wait EE

16.-Plan P1

17.- City break

I develop a process scheme, and flowcharts that allow studying complete operations and not just a particular activity, for decision-making when eliminating, reducing, or combining operations, which are identified as operations, transportation, inspection, delays, and storage.

Schools of Empirical Administration.

This current postulates that administrative tasks must be executed and considered in the manner suggested by recent custom or tradition. Its main representatives are Peter F Drucker, Erners Dale, and Lawrence Appley who carried out studies based on practical experiences in which they discarded almost all theoretical foundations.

The main disadvantage of the empirical school is that the results obtained are sometimes mediocre since what is convenient for one company is not always for another.

Environmental School

This administrative current was issued by experimental psychologists, it is based on the idea that the human being performs better if the environmental conditions that surround him (light, heat, humidity, etc.) are in harmony with his organism if he tries to obtain greater productivity by providing the worker with more pleasant working conditions. One trade unionist sarcastically called this theory the “School of Happy Cows.”

School of human behavior

The negative reactions of the workers against Taylorism and the mediocre results in its application as well as the principles for scientific selection. Thus, the school of human behavior was born, also known as the school of human relations, which gave greater importance to man. The factors that influence to raise the morale of the workers are the affective and social aspects such as recognition, being listened to by management, and being part of the group of workers. The type of supervision is vital for the difference, the point of view of the “man machine” of engineering is replaced by that of the man who deserves the treatment of justice and dignity. He demonstrates the need to improve human relations through the application of behavioral sciences to administration.

Robert Owen (1771-1858)

He was a manager of a slag textile factory and defined the workers as the “vital machines” and compared their importance and nature to that of the “inanimate machines” of the factory. He demonstrated that if the social and personal needs of the workers were met the costs involved would be repaid in spades.

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George Elton Mayo (1880-1949)

A psychologist by profession, he was a professor of logical philosophy and ethics in Australia. His primary interest was to analyze in the worker the psychological effects that the physical conditions of work could produce on production. He demonstrated that without cooperation in the projects, being listened to, and being considered equally by their superiors, it is difficult and sometimes almost impossible to reach the objectives set.

social system school

Management is approached from the point of view of the social system or intercultural relations. Through the experimental method of Durkheim and Watson, an attempt is made to build a scientifically organized society and a science of personnel management in which the administration would include the relationships between:

a) The organization

b) extreme and internal environments

c) The forces that produce changes and adjustments

It provides important contributions in the sense that it considers the social phenomenon as an important aspect of organizations. Its main representatives are Marx Weber, Chester Bernard, Edgar Schein, Frank Oliver Sheldon, and Chris Argyris, whose essential data is provided below:

Max Weber (1864-1920)

He intensively carried out studies about the function of government offices in Germany and in general about the interactions between the workgroups that make up the bureaucracy. His basic proposal was

that the application of the principle of specialization causes greater precision, speed, and knowledge in the development of work

Oliver Sheldon (1894-1951)

Sheldon referred to the organization, direction, and control of the administration within the industry, focusing especially on the production area.

On the other hand, Sheldon contributed to studies about the systems approach, general management styles, and industrial psychology.

Chester Bernard (1886-1961)

He applied his deep knowledge of psychology and sociology in his tenure as president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Co. He was closely associated with the Harvard Business School group that participated in the Hawthorne studies.

I postulate his theory of authority in which he showed that subordinates can frustrate authority that they do not accept. He contemplated the organization as a social system and concluded that the persistence of this system is from its effectiveness in achieving collective objectives and from its efficiency in satisfying individual goals.

Systems Administration School

The system is a set made up of parts, which form a coherent whole, or unit, to develop a systematic framework for the description of the empirical world.