At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the world experienced a technological revolution, which originated turbulent processes of readjustment, stabilization, and understanding. The economy, industry, agriculture, and society were in the midst of all this change, therefore, each one of them was affected. (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001). As Kalakota and Robinson (2001) and Norris Grant, Hurley James, Hartley Kennet, Dunleavy John, and Balls John (2000) make known, the Internet throughout this revolution has quickly come to be accepted by other means of communication as They are the telephone, the radio, the television, which their acceptance time was much longer.

Because of this, and because the Internet has come to stay and develop, it impacts each organization, according to Dowding (2001), many doors of opportunity have been opened for businesses with the variant that they have to adapt to new values, rules, and therefore make a change in their way of doing business. (Siebel2, 2003; Brenix 2003; Faramarz 2001). This new way of doing business is a disciplined model, a complete transformation of business relationships, the way to manage efficiency, speed, innovation, and value creation, it is called e-business.

To achieve this transformation, in this electronic business, a series of technologies such as ERP, SCM, CRM, KM, and BI is needed, which will allow e-business to develop.

Introduction

Throughout the years, various technologies have emerged, technologies that were disruptive in their time and that achieved surprising changes in humanity in the different areas that make it up. (Norris et al, 2000). One of these technologies that has greatly impacted the entire world is the Internet. Since the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a drastic and turbulent process of rearrangement has taken place in various sectors of society and industry, and each one of them has been affected by this technology. (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001)

Brenix (2003) comments that as a result of this technology, new opportunities were created and opened for each of the businesses, but at the same time, many problems arose, came to light, and it was necessary to face them. Faramarz (2001) also comments that due to this new change, a new environment was created, an environment in which there were only two options, to enter or not to enter. To enter this, it was necessary to adapt to it, adapt to the new values, the new rules, but above all and very importantly the new way of doing business. Siebel2 (2003), Brenix (2003), Faramarz, 2001)

Faramarz (2201) and Brenix (2003), comment that within the new that arose as a result of this change, there were certain levels of problem such as dependence on information technology, more demanding clients, more informed clients, strategies, environment dynamics, etc Dowding (2001) complements this overview by commenting that in this fast-paced business environment, it is necessary to have a strategy that guides the company since speed and complexity will make it extremely difficult to face current circumstances and respond to opportunities.

All this change, this new way of doing business is called e-business, electronic business, which is not a simple way of doing business or a sales channel and relationship between the organization and the client, but rather goes beyond, It is a business initiative that transforms business relationships, it is a new way of managing efficiency, innovation, speed and the creation of value for the company. (Garza Pérez, 2003, citing Hartman, Sifones and Kador 2000).

According to this perspective, and taking into account the above and recapitulating, it is a business initiative, it is a new way of doing business, therefore, it needs tools that constitute this form of business. (Dowding Hill, 2001). These tools are technologies that are a key or indispensable part of an electronic business, without which it cannot exist or develop. These technologies are Customer Relationship Management (Siebel2, 2003), Supply Chain Management (Larson, 2001), Business Intelligence (Raymond, 2003), Knowledge Management (Allard Suize and Holsapple Clyde, 2002), and Enterprise Resource Planning (Kuei Chu-Hua, 2002).

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Methodology:

To carry out this research work, a series of resources were used to obtain bibliographic sources, to provide the reader with supported information. The bibliographic sources used are Books, the ITESM digital library, electronic magazines, Web pages of companies that provide each of the information technologies for e-business, and the Internet.

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The Internet is here to stay, to develop to impact each of the organizations, as mentioned by Dowding (2001), likewise, Faramarz (2001) comments that this impact occurs by expecting that everything is done faster, better, and cheap.

To be successful in this economy, the Internet economy, as Dowding (2001) says, it is necessary to integrate a disciplined model of electronic business within the organization with a structured methodology. However, many of the businesses have not done so and have sunk into a problem, since they try to achieve e-business without considering strategies for its proper development, according to Faramarz (2001).

Currently, it is essential to distinguish between the implementation of an e-commerce and an e-business, since this has also been a factor that companies have not been able to differentiate. As stated by Frick cited by Hernández Sosa (2003), electronic business is using the network to improve business processes and have better performance, it does not necessarily imply selling something over the Internet, as is the case with e-commerce (Hartman et al., 2000, cited by Garza Pérez, 2003).

In the development of the article, the difference between these two concepts is presented in a general way, as well as the information technologies of e-business which are essential for its implementation.

1. e-Commerce

Kalakota and Robinson (1999) describe e-commerce from a business process perspective as the application of technology to automate business transactions and workflow.

E-commerce is defined in the work of Gómez (1998) as a modern commercial technology that reflects the similar needs of commercial organizations and consumers to reduce costs while also improving the quality of goods and services and increasing the speed of customer service. delivery.

 

2. e-Business

Garza Pérez (2003) quoting Hartman et al (2000) mentions that e-business is any initiative on the Internet that transforms business relationships, be they business-to-business, business-to-customer, intra-business, or between two consumers. E-business is a new way of managing efficiencies, speed, innovation, and the creation of new value in a company.

E-business is called the third phase of e-commerce, as mentioned by Kalakota and Robinson (2001). This includes all the applications and processes that allow a company to carry out a business transaction.

In addition to encompassing e-commerce, e-business includes both the front-and-back-office applications that form the core of modern business. Thus, e-business is not just an e-commerce transaction or buying-and-selling over the Web (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001, Siebel Thomas (2001), it is the global strategy of redefining old business models, with the help of technology to maximize customer value and profits (Kalakota and Robinson, 2001) Siebel Thomas (2001) mentions that e-business incorporates the strategic use of information and communication technologies (including, but not limited to, to the Internet) to interact with clients, projects, and partners through multiple communication and distribution channels.

 

3. e-Business IT

To have an e-Business, it is necessary to have the support of a series of information technologies, as well as the strategy is indisputably essential because the use of the Internet in the organization is a high-risk proposition. It can be a double-edged sword, it can capture a huge market or it can be a company killer, which is why it must be tied to a disciplined and structured process. However, this is not everything, a Methodology focused on problems and opportunities is necessary. (Dowding Hill, 2001).

Reaffirming the above, Brenix (2003) indicates that to achieve the development of e-business in the organization, a series of tools are used that allow the organization to develop more quickly and obtain satisfaction in its different channels.

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Likewise, Siebel2 (2003) declares that it is of great importance for the organization to have different technologies that provide these benefits, to keep each of its parts effective.

The information technologies for e-business, to which each of these authors referred, are the following:

  • CRM, Customer Relationship Management (Customer Relationship Management). (Siebel2,2003).
  • SCM, Supply Chain Management, (Larson, 2001).
  • BI, Business Intelligence, (Business Intelligence). (Raymond, 2003).
  • KM, Knowledge Management, Allard Suzie and Holsapple Clyde (2002).
  • ERP, Enterprise Resource Planning (Enterprise Resource Planning), (Kuei Chu-Hua, 2002)

3.1 CRM, Customer Relationship Management (Customer Relationship Management).

It is a methodology for customer identification, acquisition, and retention, enabling organizations to manage and coordinate customer interactions across multiple channels, departments, lines of business, and geography. (Siebel2, 2003)

CRM   Software provides a large number of benefits to the organization (Siebel1, 2003), achieving this, maintaining a stable relationship with the customer relationship chain, providing greater results, with lower costs, and delivering them in the agreed time and with a high-quality (Brenix, 2003).

It is an integrated methodology for customer identification, acquisition, and retention, enabling organizations to manage and coordinate customer interactions across multiple channels, departments, lines of business, and geography. (Siebel2, 2003)

Below are some companies that sell CRM solutions:

  • Siebel
  • SAP-CRM
  • Oracle

3.2 SCM, Supply Chain Management.

It is the identification and management of the specific supply chain, which are critical to an organization’s purchasing operations. (Larson, 2001) Supply Chain Management. Supply chain management can and should play a vital role in managing supply chain processes that pertain to suppliers. (Larson, 2002).

An information technology that is also key within the implementation of e-business is SCM, Supply Chain Management, according to Rock (2000) this term may not be as fashionable as e-terms and i-terms, but as Supply chain management is developed to support new business models including innovative ways to engage the customer, manage risk, manage information and finance, and harness product enthusiasm for continuous practice of continuous improvement.

Below are some companies that sell SCM solutions :

  • Oracle
  • Baan
  • PeopleSoft

3.3 BI, Business Intelligence, (Business Intelligence)

Globalization, the internationalization of markets, the new economy, and electronic business, are an interrelation of phenomena that emerge with challenges of new attitudes of survival and adaptation. (Raymond, 2003)

Therefore, according to Raymond (2003), it is essential to detect the trends and understand the strategies that come from a global knowledge economy, that is, business intelligence activities by which the economic, technological, and social environments are explored.

There are several vendors of BI solutions, some of them are mentioned below:

  • COGNOS
  • HYPERION

3.4 KM, Knowledge Management, (Knowledge Management)

KM ( Knowledge Management ), Allard et al (2002) define that to systematically study, develop and apply such technologies for electronic business, it is essential to adopt a perspective that gives a fairly comprehensive representation of knowledge management.

Reaffirming this, Garza Perez (2003) quoting Raman (2002) says that in a global economy, obtaining advantages results from an adequate management of the company’s knowledge. This refers to Managing three main aspects that are people, processes, and technology. That is why companies have realized that the knowledge found in their employees is an extremely important resource for the company and therefore can and should be managed.

Among the companies that sell KM solutions, some are mentioned below:

CORPORUM

ARIKUS

ASYNC

3.5 ERP, Enterprise Resource Planning (Enterprise Resource Planning)

Technology, particularly the Internet and ERP, allow companies to develop new ways to make and move products, manage business processes at all levels, and communicate with customers and/or suppliers in real-time (Kuei Chu-Hua, 2002).

Likewise, Norris et al (200) comment that the ERP is a structured approach to optimize the internal value chain of a company. In other words, what ERP does within the organization is to organize, codify and standardize business processes and data of the company, as Norris et al (2000) comment.

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Among the main vendors of ERP solutions, we find:

  • SAP
  • BAAN
  • Oracle

Conclusion

With all the information collected in each of the articles, we can conclude that electronic business, e-business, day by day has gone and continues to gain strength surprisingly and has found itself in our reality.

Businesses are currently the result of a drastic change in the way they perform, in their way of thinking, in the current way, in their way of relating, and in living. That is why electronic business is not an alternative, it is an imperative fact, a fact that each company, each organization must seek and achieve, we can say, a goal that is essential to achieve. However, due to the desire to reach and achieve this goal, we can fall into drifting, losing orientation, which is why it is essential to have a strategy that allows its development.

To achieve this goal, a series of technologies are used that allow the achievement of the same, these technologies are CRM, SCM, KM, BI, and ERP. However, one must be very cautious, since there is no “cooking recipe” that is used to guide the organization to implement an e-business.

That is why the need arises to study and put special emphasis on the Critical Success Factors and in this way be aware and expectant of events and be cautious for the moment in which it is necessary to act.

In short, the reality is that every company, of any size, in any industry, and anywhere in the world, has to change the way it does business, recognizing that the Internet is the main force that communicates both companies and people.

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